Research Statistics and Methods

 

Liver Cancer and Hepatoblastoma Statistics

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1. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification Liver cancer incidence rate worldwide, 2008. Figure generated in Oct. 2011. Liver cancer incidence rate is high mostly in Asia and Africa, but also moderately high in Mexico and Peru.

Data derived from GLOBOCAN 2008, international Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization (http://globocan.iarc.fr/).
2. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification United States Liver and Bile Duct cancer incidence rates for 2004-2008, all races (including Hispanic), both sexes, and all ages. Figure generated in Sept. 2011. Note that high incidence rate in Texas, New Mexico, and California.

US Cancer data derived from (http://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/).
3. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification State of Texas liver cancer incidence rate, 2000-2008, all races (including Hispanic), both sexes, and all ages. Figure generated in Oct. 2011. Note that liver cancer incidence rate in counties in South Texas near San Antonio are relatively high.

Texas Cancer Registry Statistic data (http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/tcr/data.shtm).
4. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification San Antonio (Bexar County) liver cancer incidence rate, 1999-2006, all races (including Hispanic), both sexes, and all ages. The primary data source was the Bexar County cancer incidence data which were obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry (http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/tcr/).

Technical Report: Small Area Analysis of Primary Liver Cancer Incidence in Bexar County, Texas, by Brad H. Pollock, MPH, PhD, Sept. 2011.
5. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification Incidece rate of Liver Cancer by Gender and Age (adapted from SEER).

Gender disparity of liver cancer is clear evidence, particularly with the progress of age. However, for age < 5 years old, where most liver tumors are hepatoblastoma, rates between male/female are similar. Available at http://seer.cancer.gov/.
6. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification Hepatoblastoma incidence rate (SEER).

United States Liver cancer age-specific incidence rates by histology and age all races, both sexes, SEER, 1986-95. Figure adopted from HEPATIC TUMORS ICCC VII report, by Marc Bulterys, Marc T. Goodman, Malcolm A. Smith, Jonathan D. Buckley (Figure VII.2). Available at http://seer.cancer.gov/publications/childhood/ and [pdf].
7. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification United States childhood cancer incidence rates for 2004-2008, all sites, all races (including Hispanic), both sexes, and ages < 15. Figure generated in Sept. 2011.

US Cancer data derived from (http://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/).

 

Research Methods

1. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification Gene Expression Profiling: Microarray technology provides a powerful tool for studying altered gene expression change globally. By comparing tumors and matching normal tissues derived from liver tumors, a list of differentially expressed genes can be identified. In past years, many of genes with altered expression levels were reported in hepatic tumors, such as genes from Wnt signaling pathway (WNT5A, WIF1, etc), Cell cycle (CCND1, CDC14B), TGF-beta signaling pathway (TGFB, BMP4) and apoptosis (PIK3R1, BCL2L1, and TNFSF10). (Microarray: Affymetrix U133plus2)

(Image adepted from Adesina AM, et al, Hum Pathol. 2009 Jun;40(6):843-53, contact M. Finegold)
2. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification microRNA Profiling: MicroRNA (miRNA), a class of noncoding small RNA with length of 21 nucleotides, have been shown to play important functions in various pathogenic processes, including immunologic response and tumorigenesis. Typically, microRNAs degrade mRNA or repress post-transcriptional process by aligning with sequences in the 3’-UTR . MicroRNA can target oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, contributing to the initiation and progression of many human cancers. Many of RNAs are known disregulated in Hepatic cancers, such as miR-199a, miR-145, miR-148, miR-21, miR-34a, miR-221/222, and miR-26a.

Contact: Dr. Lola Lopez-Terrada, Texas Children's Hopsital, Houston, TX.
3. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification array CGH: Whole genome copy number alteration of hepatoblastoma tumor DNA. Chromosome 2q24 is amplified; amplification of this region has been shown to be associated with a poorer prognosis. This tumor also demonstrates trisomy 8 and tetrasomy 20. These numerical chromosomal aberrations are common in hepatoblastoma.

Contact: Dr. Gail Tomlinson, GCCRI/UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX.
4. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification Hepatoblastoma Mouse Model: We will develop a mouse model of human hepatoblastoma, to better define the tumor-cell of origin, establish causative genetic defects and identify novel biomarkers to facilitate the diagnosis and identification of therapeutic targets for the treatment of hepatoblastoma.

Contact: Dr. Sally Comerford, UT Southwestern, Dallas, TX.
5. children liver cancer, hepatoblastoma, pediatric tumors, pediatric cancers, Hepatoblastoma, rare tumors, hepatoblast, hepatoblastoma classification Exome-capture DNA-sequencing. We will utilize massively-parallel 'next-generation' DNA sequencing technologies to characterize the somatic genetic alterations occurring in the clinically-annotated hepatoblastoma samples collected in the project. These sequence will be integrated with parallel profiling studies of RNA/microRNA expression and copy number alterations in order to allow an unprecedentedly-comprehensive molecular characterization of hepatoblastoma with clinical and histopathologic correlation.

Sequencing facility: Human Genome Sequencing Center at Baylor College of Medicine

Contact: Dr. Will Parson, BMC, Houston, TX.